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HISTORY OF OHIO

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WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON Bom in Berkeley, Charles City county, Virginia, Feb- ' niary 9, 1773; educated at Hampton Sidney College, Vir- ginia; entered the army in 1791, and from that time was prominently connected with western events; Secretary of the Northwest Territory. 1798-99, resigning to become dele- g-Aie in Congress; resigned as dckjf&lfi QH^WIK^

liidiaa. ASaits; won the b&tt]» of Tijipecnnne ilB

InJiMis, Novembw 7, 1811; in ibo War of iDit'^

>'i:iiid of the northw^tcm Qtmy and fought |l

1 itllcof theThamesiOL-lf i„ [5, iHljj.atwhic^

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V lilo living in teiirenieni at North Bend. OUO, ht was

li iiniiHtod by the Wliigs. 1S39, foctbe picsidmcy; t!.:. led,

i-iOidwJ April 4. i&^I-

History of Ohio

The Rise and Progress of an American State

•(- By Einuos 0:1 Randall and Daniel J. Ryan

Volume Four

By

DANIEL J. RYAN

Printed by John C. Rankin Company, New York

for The Century History Company

coptkight i912

By The Century History Company

all rights rbsbrvsd

Publication Office

54 Dey Street, New York, N. Y.

U. S. A.

^^^fl PREFACE

I HAVE endeavored in this volume to present an impartial and accurate history of the State of Ohio from 1837 to the present time. This period of seventy-five years, during which the State reached the maturity of its strength and progress, has been the most strenuous in the life of its people. It witnessed great political and moral upheavals, the results of powerful popular movements. During this period the State has participated in three wars and contributed in many ways more than its share to our National greatness.

All this while the material side of the State has developed with prodigious strides. In 1837 the total value of its taxable property, real and personal, was slightly over one hundred million dollars; in 191 1 this had increased to over six billion, two hundred million dollars, or approximately sixty-two fold. In the mean- time the population has more than doubled.

Necessarily a people so potential in their progress as such facts indicate have met all questions pre- sented to them with courage and virility, and settled them with determination and credit. Hence the reader will find the succeeding pages filled with the history of important conflicts over political, social, and moral issues. And whether these questions have related to slavery, the Civil War, temperance, or taxation, Ohio has debated and decided them with earnestness and intelligence. In the treatment of the history of the various domestic issues, it has been my aim to present the historical view only, entirely aside from a personal standpoint. Daniel J. Ryan.

CONTENTS CHAPTER I.

OHIO'S SHARE OF THE SURPLUS REVENUE OF 1837

The Policy of Distribution 3

Act to Regulate Deposits of Public Monies 5

The Supreme Court and the Last Payment 6

Investment of Ohio's Portion 8

The Distribution to the Counties 10

Return of Loans 14

Siunmaries 15

CHAPTER n.

THE LOG CABIN AND HARD CIDER CAMPAIGN OF 1840

Party Spirit and Political Conditions 19

Nomination of Harrison by the Whigs 22

Opening of the Campaign in Ohio 25

Famous Songs of the Campaign 30

Oratory ^The "Buckeye Blacksmith" 34

Celebration of the Siege of Fort Meigs 37

The Remarkable Dayton Meeting 39

Harrison's Death Corwin's Election as Governor 42

CHAPTER HI.

OHIO IN THE MEXICAN WAR

Corwin as Governor 47

His Election to the Senate 48

Party Sentiment Concerning the War 50

Ohio Regiments 52

Independent Military Organizations 58

Fifteenth United States Infantry 60

Ohio Officers in the War 61

General Thomas L. Hamer 62

The Whigs and the War Senator Corwin 65

Corwin's Subsequent Career 68

His Death 70

CHAPTER IV.

A REVIEW OP THE FORTIES, STATISTICAL AND HISTORICAL

Remaricable Growth of Population in Ohio 75

Enterprise and Industry 78

Coal, Iron, Salt 79

viii THE RISE AND PROGRESS

Railix)ads 82

Departure of the Wyandots 83

Legislative Complications, 1848-49 91

The "Black Laws" 93

Election of Chase to the Senate 94

Governors during the Decade 96

The Question of a Constitutional Convention 98

CHAPTER V.

THE SECOND CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION

Meeting of the Convention 103

Necessity of Revising the Judicial System 105

Other Requirements 106

Prominent Members 107

Work of the Convention 1 13

Adoption of the New Constitution Ii6

CHAPTER VI.

THE ANTI SLAVERY MOVEMENT IN OHIO THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD ORGANIZATION OF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY

Ohio's Opposition to Slavery Its Qualifications 1 19

Attitude of Cincinnati 122

Abolition Agitation and Its Noted Promoters 124

Origin of the Underground Railroad 130

The Fugitive Slave Law 132

The Oberlin- Wellington Rescue Case 134

Organization of the Republican Party 139

Election of Chase to the Governorship 141

Election of Dennison 144

CHAPTER Vn.

OHIO IN THE CIVIL WAR

THE CALL TO ARMS

GOVERNOR DENNISON'S ADMINISTRATION

FORMATION OF THE UNION PARTY

The "Committee of Thirty-Three" 149

Kentucky and Tennessee Officials in Columbus 151

Resolutions for Conciliation by the Ohio L^slature 153

The Peace Conference Lincoln's Inauguration 155

OF AN AMERICAN STATE ii

The Firing on Port Sumter 157

Ohio's Response 159

The Treason Bill Vallandigham 161

Troops Furnished by Ohio, 1861 165

Ohio's Dangerous Situation ^West Virginia Campaign 167

Military Expenditures 169

Formation of the Union Party 172

Nomination and Election of Tod 176

CHAPTER VIII.

OHIO IN THE CIVIL WAR— Continued GOVERNOR TOD'S ADMINISTRATION SIEGE OF CINCINNATI THE ANDREWS RAIDERS

Governor Tod's Inaugural Address 181

Ohio in the Battle of Shiloh 182

Military Arrests 185

Blirby Smith's Invasion of Kentucky Cincinnati's Peril 187

The "Squirrel Hunters" 189

The Georgia Railroad Expedition 191

Andrews and His Companions 193

Failure of the Attempt 200

The Commemorative Monument 202

Political Situation in Ohio, 1862 204

CHAPTER IX.

OHIO IN THE CIVIL WAR— Continued THE VALLANDIGHAM CAMPAIGN OP 1863 ELECTION OF JOHN BROUGH, GOVERNOR

Depression of Sentiment Vallandigham's Antagonism 209

Governor Tod Arrested 213

Arrest of Vallandigham 216

His Conviction and Pimishment 219

The Albany Committee and Lincoln's Reply 221

Resistance to the Draft 227

Vallandigham's Nomination ^Address to the President 229

The Union Party Nominates Brough 232

Election of Brough 238

THE RISE AND PROGRESS

CHAPTER X.

OHIO IN THE CIVIL WAR— Concluded MORGAN'S RAID, CAPTURE, AND ESCAPE GOVERNOR BROUGH'S ADMINISTRATION CONSPIRACIES OP THE "SONS OP LIBERTY" OHIO'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE WAR

Morgan's Raid into Ohio 241

Pursuit and Capture 246

Sensational Escape from the Penitentiary 249

End of Tod's Administration 252

Brough's Administration 254

The Ohio Troops in the War 255

Social and Economic Effects of the Struggle 257

The "Sons of Liberty" 263

Plot to Release Confederate Prisoners 264

The Lake Erie Scheme 271

Its Frustration 277

Ohio's Patriotic Record 279

Ohio Generals in the War 281

Participation in Its Administrative Conduct 284

CHAPTER XI.

POST BELLUM POLITICS

Ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment 289

State Campaign of 1865 291

General Cox and the Oberlin Letter 295

Election of Cox as Governor 297

Death of Brough Governor Charles Anderson 298

The Fourteenth Amendment 299

Campaign of 1867 301

First Election of Hayes as Governor 304

The Rescinding Resolution 306

Fifteenth Amendment Ratified Hayes Reelected 308

Vallandigham's "New Departure," 1871 310

Nomination and Election of Noyes 312

CHAPTER XIL

THE THIRD CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION POLITICAL HISTORY FOR TEN YEARS

Reasons for Again Revising the Constitution 317

The Convention 319

Discussion of Its Work 323

OF AN AMERICAN STATE xi

Defeat of the Proposed Constitution 326

The Liberal Republican Movement 327

Governor William Allen 329

The Women's Temperance Crusade 330

Greenbackism 332

Third Election of Hayes, 1875 334

He is Chosen President 336

Governor Yoimg 338

The Railroad Strikes, 1877 339

Bishop's Election 341

Defeat of General Ewing by Foster 343

President Garfield 345

Foster Reelected 346

Governor Hoadly 347

CHAPTER XIII.

THE FLOOD OP 1884

THE CINCINNATI RIOTS

THE HOCKING VALLEY STRIKE

DEVELOPMENT OF GAS AND OIL

Ohio River Floods— 1 883-— 1884 353

Riots in Cincinnati 357

The Sheriff's Request for Troops 361

Suppression of the Disturbances 363

The Hocking Valley Troubles 364

Discovery of Natural Gas in Findlay 366

The Great De\'elopment— The Waste 368

Gas and Petroleum Statistics 370

CHAPTER XIV.

THE ADMINISTRATIONS OF GOVERNORS FORAKER, CAMPBELL. McKINLEY AND BUSHNELL

The Liquor Issue Campaign of 1885 373

Foraker*s First Election 377

Cincinnati Frauds and Legislative Mix-Up 378

The Foraker Administration 382

His Reflection, 1887 384

The "White Caps" 387

Campaign of 1889 389

The "Ballot Box Forgery" 391

Governor Campbell 394

The Standard Oil Case 398

McKinley-Campbell Campaign of 1891 400

xii THE RISE AND PROGRESS

The Piqua Tin Plate Episode 402

Governor McEIinley *s Two Tenns 405

First Election of Bushnell 409

William McKinley , President 410

The Urbana Lynching 411

CHAPTER XV.

OHIO IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR

The Causes of the War 415

Ohio's Preparedness 418

The Participating Organizations 431

Ohio Generals ^Henry W. Lawton 426

Administrative Direction by Ohioans 42S

Senator Foraker 429

CHAPTER XVI.

RISE OF MARCUS A. HANNA

THE ADMINISTRATIONS OF GOVERNORS NASH, HERRICK, PATTISON. HARRIS AND HARMON

The Cleveland Strike Mr. Hanna 433

Hanna's Election to the Senate, 1898 435

Campaign of 1899 ^John R. McLean 438

"Golden Rule" Jones 440

Governor Nash 442

Death of John Sherman 444

Death of McKinley ^Taxation Reform 446

Nash's Second Term 449

The Chillicothe Centennial Celebrations 451

Governor Herrick 454

Governor Pattison 457

Governor Harris 458

President Taft 460

Governor Harmon 461

The Fourth Constitutional Convention 465

CHAPTER XVn.

OHIO'S PART IN NATIONAL EXPOSITIONS

President McKinley on Expositions 471

The Centennial at Philadelphia 472

Notable Address by Edward D. Mansfield 474

The World's Pair at Chicago 477

Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo 483

Louisiana Purchase Exposition at St. Louis 484

Jamestown Ter-Centennial 4^7

OF AN AMERICAN STATE xiii

CHAPTER XVIII.

STATE BANKS AND BANKING

The Miami Exporting Company, of Cincinnati 489

Other Early Banks 491

Opposition to the Bank of the United States 493

Early Banking Conditions 494

The State Banking Law of 1845 499

Savings Banks ^The National Bank Act 501

Present Banking Situation 502

CHAPTER XIX.

HISTORY OP LIQUOR LEGISLATION IN OHIO

General Review 507

Early License Provisions 508

End of License System, Constitution of 1851 518

License Rejected also in 1874 ^^^ 1883 520

Miscellaneous Early Regulations 521

Sales Prohibited to Indians and Troops 523

The General Revision of Liquor Laws 524

A Distinctive Legislative Policy Adopted 525

Laws Prohibiting Sales to Certain Persons 526

Right of Action Given to Injured Parties 527

Broadened by Amendment 528

The Effect of the Adair Law 529

Certain Authority Conferred upon City Councils 530

Inauguration of the Taxation of the Liquor Traffic 531

The Pond Law Held to be Unconstitutional 532

The Dow Law Sustained 533

The First Local Option Law 534

Sustained by the Supreme Court 535

The Brannock Law Passed 536

Subsequent Local Option Laws 537

The County Made Unit for Local Option 538

The First Sunday Law, Passed in 1815 539

Its Amendments and Extensions 540

The "Search and Seizure Act" 541

ILLUSTRATIONS

WiUum Heni7 Harriaon Fnmtia^eoe

Tbotnas COTwin Pacing page a6

TbORUksL. Hamer

John Johnston

Seabuiy Pord

William Medill

Salmon P. Chase

Levi P. Coffin

Joshua ft. Ciddings

Willtam Ueimison

Benjamin F. Wade

Ocmcnt L- Vallandighain . .

David Tod

Edwin M. Staaton

UlyMea S. Grant

William T. Sherman

John Bnnigh

Philip H. Sberid&n

James B. McPheison

William S. Roeecrana

James A. Garfidd

Jacob D. Cox

f::v,r.' r \..>.- ....

Momson K. Waite

VHUam Allen

Kvtboford B. Hayes..

QuriaPoslfir

Gwje Hoadlr

Bdtaniy Storer

iotpk B. Pofaker

J«m<«E. Campbell... WiHttniMeKinley....

*«S.Bu»hDcII

G«WieK.Naah

^mo T. Herrick ....

]*l««i Hannon

WiOJwiH. Taft

Sttaley Matthew*....

J<«a awrniim

*«>fttU. Pendleton..

C*l'in S, Biice

]«fc« M. Pattiwwi

338

346 358

ILLUSTRATIONS

WUEam Hem; Harrison Frontispieo

Thomas Corwin Fadug page 31

Thomas L. Hamer ' " +

Samuel Sbellabarger ' ' 7'

John Johnston 8,

Seabuiy Ford 91

William Medill - 10

Sataon P. Chase ' ' la

Levi P. Coffin jj

Joshua R. Giddings " 141

Wi!i;ani Dennison ' ' 151

Benjamin F. Wade

Oement L. ValUndigham

David Tod

Edwin M.Stanton

Ulysses S. Grant

Williflm T. Shennan

John Brough

Phnip H, Sheridan

James B, McPherson

William S. Rosecrans

James A. Garfield

Jacob D. Cox

Allen G. Thuraian

Edward F, Noyes

Idomson R. Waite

William Allen

Rutherford B. Hayes __

diaries Foster 346

George Ho«dly " 358

Bellamy Storer " 368

Joseph B. Foraker

James E. CampbeU

William McEnlcy

Asa S. Bustmell

George K. Nash

Uyron T. Henick

Jndson Harmmi

WaiiamH. Taft

Stanley Matthews

John Sherman " 496

Gtorse H. Pendleton " 508

Calvin S. Bricc

John M. Pattison

Chapter I.

OHIO'S SHARE OF THE SURPLUS REVENUE

OF 1837

THE RISE AND PROGRESS

was any conclusion arrived at. On January 27, 1836, Senator Thomas Ewing of Ohio reported from the Committee on Public Lands in favor of distrib- uting the proceeds of the land sales among the states for a definite period, to be used for education and in- ternal improvements. Henry Clay proposed a distri- bution plan of his own. Calhoun believed distribution unconstitutional, and proposed a joint resolution to amend the Constitution so as to legalize any legislation distributing the surplus. He also presented a bill regulating the deposit of the public money. Through Webster's labors this latter bill was amended by providing for the division of the surplus among the states. When it came over to the House, Webster's distribution feature was stricken out and a clause was inserted in its place making the states the deposit- aries of the surplus, subject to recall by the Secretary of the Treasury. In this shape it passed. It was to be a loan and not a gift.

Senator Benton, in his "Thirty Years' View" (Vol. I, p. 652), thus describes this legislation: "It is in name a deposit; in form a loan; in essence and design a distri- bution. It is known to be so; and all this verbiage about a deposit is nothing but the device and con- trivance of those who have been for years endeavoring to distribute the revenue, sometimes by the land bills, sometimes by direct legislation, sometimes by proposed amendments to the Constitution. It has no feature, no attribute, no characteristic, no quality of a deposit." Nevertheless, the bill passed Congress by large ma- jorities— 38 to 6 in the Senate, 155 to 38 in the House. Benton, in his work referred to (Vol. II, p. 657), says

OF AN AMERICAN STATE

that Jackson signed the bill "with a repugnance of feeling, and a recoil of judgment, which it required great efforts of friends to overcome; and with a regret of it afterwards which he often and publicly expressed/' The law was entitled "An Act to Regulate the Deposits of the Public Monies, " and it was approved by the President June 23, 1836. Section 13 of the act, the same inserted by the House, as a remarkable instance of financial legislation, is given in full : "That the money which shall be in the Treasury of the United States on the first day of January, 1837, reserving the sum of five million dollars, shall be deposited with the several states, in proportion to their respective representation in the Senate and House of Represent- atives of the Congress of the United States; and the Secretary of the Treasury shall deliver the same to such persons as the several states may authorize to receive it, on receiving certificates of deposit signed by the competent authorities of each State, each for such amount and in such form as the Secretary of the Treasury may prescribe, which shall set forth and express the obligation of the State to pay the amount thereof to the United States, or their assigns; and which said certificates it shall be competent for the Secretary of the Treasury, in the name and in behalf of the United States, to sell and assign, whenever it shall be necessary, for want of other money in the Treasury, to meet appropriations made by Congress, all sales and assignments, however, to be ratable, and in just and equal proportions, among all the states, according to the amounts received by them respectively; and all such certificates of deposit shall be subject to

6 THE RISE AND PROGRESS

and bear an interest of five per cent, per annum, payable half-yearly, from the time of such sale and assignment, and shall be redeemable at the pleasure of the states issuing the same."

According to the report of the Secretary of the Treasury for 1838 the amount deposited with the states was $28,101,644.97. The law provided that payments of the surplus should be made on the first days of January, April, July and October, 1837. Three installments, being the amount referred to, were delivered to the states, but the October deposit was never made. A severe financial panic followed, due largely to this legislation, and Congress, at the sugges- tion of President Van Buren, postponed indefinitely the payment of the fourth installment.

At different times some of the states, when they became money hungry, would demand this last pay- ment, only to be refused by the Secretary of the Treas- ury. The right of the states to this last installment was finally determined in 1884. The Supreme Court of the United States, in Ex parte Virginia (iii U. S. Reports, pages 43-48), refused to grant a writ of mandamus applied for by the State of Virginia to compel the Secretary of the Treasury to pay from the surplus revenue of the Treasury the fourth installment. Justice Harlan, speaking for the Court in deciding the case, said : " No case is made for a mandamus. If it was the duty of the Secretary of the Treasury, in execution of the act of 1836, to make the fourth installment of deposit on the day fixed in that act, whatever may have been, on that day, the wants of the public treasury, his failure to do so was legalized by

OF AN AMERICAN STATE

the act of October 2, 1837, postponing that deposit until January i, 1839. Of the latter act the State could not complain, because that of January 23, 1836, created no debt or legal obligation upon the part of the Government, but only made the states the deposi- taries, temporarily, of a portion of the public revenue not needed, as was then supposed, for the purposes of the United States." Concluding, the Court said: "We are of the opinion that the Secretary of the Treasury has no authority under existing legislation, and without further direction from Congress, to use the surplus revenues in the Treasury, from whatever source derived, or whenever, since January i, 1839, it may have accrued, for the purpose of making the fourth installment of deposit required by the act of 1836."

The State of Ohio, through its Governor and Legis- lature, at the earliest time took steps relative to its share of the deposit. Governor Lucas, in his last annual message to the General Assembly, December 6, 1836, said: "This sum being providentially placed under our control, through the operation of our revenue laws, after the entire extinguishment of the National debt, is truly a cause of gratulation, and if judiciously applied within the State to purposes of a paramount character, cannot fail to extend its benefits to the latest posterity. This money is emphatically the property of the people, in which the poor and the rich have an equal right, and in its application special regard should be had to an equal distribution of the benefits to be derived therefrom. '* The Governor then proceeded to recommend "in the most solemn

8 THE RISE AND PROGRESS

manner" the propriety of constituting Ohio's share of the surplus a common school fund, to be irrevocable, and the State to become the trustee with authority to invest the principal either in the extinguishment of the canal debt or in such stocks within the State as might be deemed safe and valuable. It will be seen that these suggestions of the Governor were substan- tially carried out by subsequent legislation.

The act providing for the distribution and invest- ment of Ohio's proportion of the surplus revenue was passed March 28, 1837 (Ohio Laws 35, pages 97-103), and it is a model of legislation concerning the subject of which it treats. It ordered that the money received from the United States should be deposited with the several organized counties of the State and, following the lines of Governor Lucas's message, that the net income should be applied to the support and encouragement of common schools within the State. This fund in each county was to be under the charge and control of the county commissioners, who were constituted a board of "county fund commissioners" for that purpose, and were to take a special oath and give a special bond to the State equal to one-half of the amount assigned to their county, that they would faithfully take charge of such fund.

The law made it the duty of the Auditor of State, when he received satisfactory evidence that a county had complied with the provisions of the act, to issue a warrant on the State Treasurer for the amount of the funds apportioned to the county in proportion to the number of white male inhabitants above the

OF AN AMERICAN STATE 9

age of twenty-one years at the last enumeration. The county fund commissioners were given power to loan this fund to any company then incorporated, or after- wards incorporated, for the construction of a canal, railroad, turnpike road or other works of internal improvement in the county or in connection therewith, provided that security in double the amount loaned should be given for the repayment of the loan. They i¥ere also authorized to make loans to the State or to any bank in the county or State, or they might loan the county a sum not exceeding ten thousand dollars for the erection of county buildings. If a loan was made to the State, the county was to receive six per cent, per annum. In case the fund was not invested in this way, it could be loaned to individuals at a rate of interest not exceeding seven or less than six per cent, per annum. But in making these individual loans the county fund commissioners were required to take from the borrower a bond secured by a mortgage on unencumbered real estate situated in the county double in value to the sum loaned, or other adequate security. All obligations and securities were to be taken in the name of the State of Ohio.

The act further provided that each county receiving any part of this fund should be held bound to the State for the amount received and not repaid.

The State canal debt at this time was the greatest burden the people were carrying, and it gave them much concern. We find, therefore, that with this in view it was provided that all the loans made were to fall due on or before January i, 1850. At this time the fund,

10 THE RISE AND PROGRESS

if collected, was to be subject to the order of the Treas- urer of State for the payment of the canal debt, if the Legislature saw fit to apply it to that purpose. The income of the loans was appropriated to the common schools and was to be apportioned among the townships or school districts in proportion to the number of children between four and twenty-one years of age. If the United States should call for any part of its deposit the Treasurer of State was to notify each county of the proportionate amount it was required to refund. It was finally provided that in the year 1839, and every enumeration thereafter, the Auditor of State was to reapportion the fund among the counties of the State proportionably to the number of white male inhabitants above the age of twenty-one years by the latest enumera- tion. Under the first and only reapportionment a redistribution was made in 1840.

Under this plan Ohio proceeded to distribute the money of the Government. This amounted to $2,007,- 260.34. For that day and for a young State it was a vast sum. Many of the states, yielding to the temp- tation which such a great fund naturally created, dissipated it by paying current expenses, squandered it in banking, or invested it in unworthy and valueless stocks. The manner in which Ohio treated this trust reflects credit upon the business management of her State oflScials. The character of its investment is a tribute to the integrity and sagacity of the men who had this work in charge.

The statement which follows, taken from the Annual Report of the Auditor of State for 1841, shows how

OF AN AMERICAN STATE

11

much each county received, first, under the act of March 28, 1837, and second, under the reapportionment provided for by that act. The counties in the first column not charged with any amount, either were not organized or did not comply with the conditions required to share in the funds.

Counties

Amount re- ceived by each county under act of March,

1837.

Amount held by each county subsequent to reapportionment of 1840.

Adams

AUen

Ashtabula. .

Athens

Bebnont

Brown

Butler

Carroll

Champaign.

Clark

Clermont. . . Clinton. . . . Columbiana Coshocton. . Crawford. . . Cuyahoga. .

Darke

Delaware. . .

Erie

Fairfield. . . . Fayette ....

Franklin

Gallia

Geauga. . . .

Greene

Guernsey. . . Hamilton. . .

Hancock

Hardin

$19,682.32 8,422.03

33J97-67 17,728.41

48,030.94

25,687.24

43,095.61

26,689.47

25,266.13

27,093-72 35,667.37

19,926.55

57,438-37 24,306.03

13,332.09 49,866.94 14,073.24 25,678.81

41,470.17 14,485.92

34,623.03

14,173-79

44,384.19 28,028.58

35,119-93 89,282.14

8,523.10

4,211.01

$19,682.32 10,707.44 33,384.01 30,322.78 40,471.74 25,687.24 40,251.12 26,642.11 24,296.83

25,351-72 30,922.61

19,926.55 52,220.27

27,730.38 15,974.96 39,044.54 15,974.96 24,545.04

15,492.35 43,346.82

14,485.92

36,838.24

14,173-79 28,626.36

28,028.58

32,977-24 101,165.56

11,707.17 4,950.38

THE RISE AND PROGRESS

Amount re- ceived by each county under act of March, 1837-

AmouDt held by each county subsequent to

1840.

Harrison. . . .

Henry

Highiaiid

Hocking

Holmes

Jackson

Jefferson ....

Knox

Lake

Licking

Logan

Lorain

Lucas

Madison. . . .

Marion

Medina

Meigs

Mercer

Miami

Monroe

Montgomery.

Morgan

Muskingum..

Ottawa

Paulding. . . .

Perry

Pickaway

Pike

Portage

Preble

Putnam

Richland ....

R088

Sandusky

Scioto

Seneca

Shelby

Stark

Summit

8,412.03 30,768.76

42,135-51

30,572.02

54.970-71 17.475-75 20,684.5s 8,422-03 14,115-34 20,760.34 29,039.22 12,750.97

33,669.11 20,970,90 45.756-99 33.876-50 53.193-66

4,307.00 25,788.30 37,801.18

9,389.51 53.833-74 30,445-69

4,211.01 S3.'5»-6i 59,380.43 15.959-77 11,580.00 23.817-55 13,337.33 53,431.06

$26,733.76

4,3I1.0t

38,516.38 8,432.03 18,960.3s

11,914.00 35. 748.89 35,100.79 18,144-83 56,813.08 18,535.99 25,489.63

8,423.03 11,900.21 18,436.37 24,076-21 14,609.81

5,000.00 33,669.11 20,970.90 43,423.66 24,924.35 53,193.66

3,875.00

4,307.00 25,788.30 26,883.33

9.659-44 34,859.48 36,341.14

6,47410 54.874-7 » 39,280-43 13,879,17 IS.768.13 21,607-91 17,323.90 48,038.31 a9i330'0>

OF AN AMERICAN STATE

13

Counties

Amount re- ceived by each county under act of March,

1837.

Amount held by each county subsequent to reapportionment of 1840.

Trumbull

Ttiscarawas

Union

Warren

Washington

Wayne

Williams

Wood

Total

157,438.37 29,022.37

8,733-66 36,898.05 21,787.83 43,499-88

4,214.02 10,872.85

li,94S,S7S-36

151,454.95 30,088.37

9,383-65 32,949.62

26,248.02

43,499.88

4,214.02

10,872.85

$1,989,482.04

Pursuing further this legislative history, we find that the State, by an act passed March 13, 1843 (Ohio Laws, 41, page 80), authorized the Commissioners of the Canal Fund to borrow not exceeding $1,500,000 to pay the amounts due the contractors of the public works, and for this purpose to issue bonds or certificates bearing a rate of interest not exceeding seven per cent. For the redemption of these bonds, which were payable January i, 1852, there was set apart and specifically pledged and appropriated the surplus revenue received from the United States, and from the first day of Jan- uary, 1850, that fund was to be held for such redemption.

Preparing to draw in the money loaned in the coun- ties, the county fund commissioners were authorized to receive these bonds in payment from those who had borrowed the surplus fund, and no new loans were to be made.

The common school fund was protected and provided for in this law by requiring that upon all payments into the State Treasury of the principal of the surplus

14 THE RISE AND PROGRESS

revenue prior to 1850, the commissioners of the canal fund should set apart a fund upon which the Treasurer of State should annually pay interest at the rate of five per cent, to the common school fund, and one per cent, to each county on the amount paid in by such county.

By the law of February 27, 1846 (Ohio Laws 44, page 68), the Auditor and Treasurer of each county supplanted the county fund commissioners in the collection of the surplus revenue loans.

The counties commenced paying their proportion into the State Treasury in 1846. Up to November 15, 1849, $839,012.68 had been paid in, and by Novem- ber 15, 1855, about $1,700,000 had been returned. In 1862, all but twenty-five counties had paid their loans to the State. In order to hasten payment these coun- ties were authorized to levy a tax to raise what was unpaid. By an act passed April 7, 1869 (Ohio Laws, 66, page 69), the auditors and treasurers of the coun- ties which had paid or would pay their portions, were authorized to collect by suit any amounts that remained unpaid to these counties by the borrowers, and the county commissioners were authorized to retain what was collected and to place it to the credit of any fund they might think best for the county.

In 1 871, all of the counties had returned their pro- portion except Highland, but in 1875, after making yearly payments, this county paid its entire account into the State Treasury. Thus the financial faith was kept, and the full sum of the surplus revenue fund which was loaned to the counties was returned with interest to the State. It was a striking instance of civic integrity as well as of prudent financial management.

OF AN AMERICAN STATE 16

The last act of this narrative of legislation related to furnishing certain relief to individual borrowers and their successors in title. When the county fund commissioners made loans to individuals, and when the loan was paid into the county treasury, no one had authority to cancel the mortgage securing these loans. These mortgages remained uncancelled until the act of March 30, 1896 (Ohio Laws 92, page loi) was passed; by this act the Governor was authorized and directed to execute and deliver a release of such mort- gages.

Two summaries will conclude the financial history of this subject. The first is a statement from the books of the Auditor of State, showing the original disposition of the surplus revenue, as follows :

Total amount received from the United States $2,007,260.34

Amount originally received by counties $1,945,575.36 Loaned to canal fund commissioners. . 61,683.02 Balance in Treasury undistributed 1.96

Total $2,007,260.34

The second summary, from the same source, shows the appropriations made by the State up to and includ- ing 1850 out of the fund at different times, and for the following purposes:

Redemption of turnpike bonds l337>369'85

Redemption or purchase of State bonds (7 per cent.

stock) 650,763.87

Payment of faith and credit bonds, to be refunded

out of sinking fund 92,742.00

Total amount of interest received by the State $1,423,216.37

Of this interest $1,245,891.79 was paid to the common school fund and a small portion to the counties. The balance, $177,324,58, was paid into the sinking fund.

16 Rise and Progress of an American State

To sum up the use that Ohio made of the surplus, it can be said that the principal was first loaned to the counties and when returned to the State that it was afterwards gradually used to pay the debts contracted for internal improvements. All this time the interest was used for the maintenance of the school system.

Chapter II.

THE LOG CABIN AND HARD CIDER CAMPAIGN OF 1840

THE political campaigns in Ohio at certain periods form not only an instructive historical lesson, but also an interesting psychological study. For twenty years after the State was organized Ohio was a part of that untroubled political sea dominated by the Democratic-Republican